The characteristic impedance (Z_{o}) of a microstrip transmission line can be calculated using the active calculator or the formulas at
the bottom of the page.

The following formulas were derived from formulas used in an article by Rick Hartley
http://www.jlab.org/accel/eecad/pdf/050rfdesign.pdf
It is not too clear from the article by Rick Hartley where to use ε_{r }and where to use ε_{eff} (although there is a note to use e_{eff}
instead of e_{r)}. The substitutions selected give results that are almost identical to the "benchmarks" in
http://www.polarinstruments.com/support/cits/IPC1999.pdf
and these benchmarks were obtained by numerical methods. The accuracy of results obtained from this calculator can be checked by making a sample PCB
and measuring the resulting impedance. Guidance for this can be found at
Measuring Characteristic Impedance of PCB tracks using a Vector Network Analyser

Where ε_{r} is the Relative Dielectric Constant

W is the Width of track

t is the Thickness of track (1 oz/ft2 = 0.035 mm)

h is the Thickness of dielectric

The above formulas are also in *Transmission Line Design Handbook *by Brian C. Wadell, Artech House 1991, with some differences in calculating
ε_{eff}. The main formula is attributable to Harold A. Wheeler and was published in, "Transmission-line properties of a
strip on a dielectric sheet on a plane", IEEE Tran. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. MTT-25, pp. 631-647, Aug. 1977. The effective dielectric constant
formula is from: M. V. Schneider, "Microstrip lines for microwave integrated circuits," Bell Syst Tech. J., vol. 48, pp. 1422-1444, 1969.

This calculator is provided free by Chemandy Electronics in order to promote the FLEXI-BOX

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